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烟囱防腐蚀的钢爬梯及平台高空置换施工技术

日期:2019-01-28 / 文章来源:烟囱防腐

1GAIKUANGZHEJIANGJUHUAREDIANJIUHAOJIZUGANGJINHUNNINGTUYANCONGGAO100m,SHANGKOUCHUKOUZHIJING4.9m,±0.000ZHIJING10.38m,TONGBIWAIBIAOMIANPODUWEI2.5%,YANTONGSHENGAODUSHEZHIPATI,ZAI50mCHUSHEYOUQUYANGPINGTAI,95mCHUSHEYOUGANGPINGTAI,WAIPATIHEPINGTAIJUNWEIPUTONGGANGJIEGOU。YANCONGGONGCHENGYU2005NIAN1YUECHUWANCHENG,YOUYUGONGCHENGSUOCHUWEIZHIWEIHUAGONGCHANGQUQIEYOUFUSHIXINGQITIPIAOGUO,GANGJIEGOUZAIZIRANHUANJINGXIA,SHOUSUOCHUHUANJINGYIJISHIDUDEYINGXIANG,ZAIYINIANBANZHIHOUGANGPATIJIPINGTAICHUXIANXIUSHI,RUBUJIAJINCHULI,FEIDANGBUNENGBAOZHENGZHENGCHANGSHIYONG,HAIYOUKENENGZAOCHENGJINHOUWUFACHULI(RUGENGHUAN,QUYANG)。GENJUJUHUAREDIANSUOCHUWAIBUHUANJINGDEQITAYANCONGHELENGQUETAGANGJIEGOUDEFANGFUQINGKUANG,WEIBAOZHENGZHANGQIWENDINGYUNXING,JUEDINGCAIYONGBUXIUGANGJIEGOUZHIHUANXIANYOUPUTONGGANGJIEGOUDEPATIJIPINGTAI。2CAIZHIDEXUANYONGYOUYUYUANPATIJIPINGTAISHEJICAIYONGPUTONGGANG。

未考虑到烟囱所处的恶劣外部环境,一般外涂防腐不能保证钢结构安全耐久使用,现采用原设计施工图套用不锈钢,保持原设计尺寸仅改变构件的材质,根据同一区域冷却塔工程的爬梯防腐情况,采用0Cr18Ni9材质。0Cr18Ni9作为一种用途广泛的不锈钢,具有良好的耐腐蚀性、耐热性、低温强度和机械特性、冲压弯曲等热加工性好,无热处理硬化现象(无磁性),使用温度为-196℃~800℃,适宜制作烟囱爬梯和平台。3爬梯及平台的制作加工爬梯及平台制作加工与普通钢类似,但由于材质不同,材料钢度加大,开槽、施焊及钻孔难度加大,加工设备专业性强,形体大,因而在钢构件车间加工、制作成型,验收合格后运至施工现场。为保证爬梯梯笼不因运输而变形。
梯笼在安装现场组拼并刷防蚀富锌漆。由于原设计考虑在烟囱筒体滑升中安装,因而梯段高采用2.5m,现在更换的梯段安装改为6m段,以提高高空安装工效。4置换施工4.1总体部署烟囱的爬梯置换采用由下至上的替换方式进行。由于爬梯局部腐蚀严重,拆除施工难度较大,部分与筒壁连接螺杆因锈蚀可能无法拆出,以及因锈蚀而严重降低强度,影响施工安全,按以下施工顺序进行:在第一平台(50m)做滑轮支梁→安装卷扬机作好起吊准备→拆除最下一段梯→安装最下一段梯→拆除次下一段梯→安装最次下一段梯→直到第一平台→在95m平台做滑轮支架→与第一段同直至完成梯段拆除和安装完成→上平台(95m)拆换→下平台拆换。原则上要尽可能使用预埋暗销。
对于不能利用的可采用焊接,并做好烟囱防腐。爬梯、支撑脚的制作应根据施工图纸及实测长度结果进行制作,制作完成后,应根据设计及方案要求进行防腐处理,爬梯笼体之间的连接根据要求采用螺栓(或焊接)连接。4.2垂直起吊装置设置根据爬梯每一标准节的起吊重量,施工时设置一台0.5t小型卷扬机进行重直起吊作业,卷扬机安装于地面上,并与烟囱设置成一定的角度,卷扬机基础的设置应牢固,并经抗拔计算设置好地锚。起重钢丝通过爬梯笼体外穿引至固定于爬梯施工替换节的上一节的定滑轮上,定滑轮在笼体的应设置牢固的固定装置,通常可采用型钢制作弯钩固定于笼体的¢20圆钢之上,同时应视笼体的锈蚀程度确定增加固定点,以确保定滑轮悬挂点的受荷稳定。

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此时,钢丝绳位于笼体外。4.5笼体的安装新安装的笼体通过笼体外的钢丝绳牵引起吊至替换节的位置,并由地面作业人员控制溜绳确保笼体由笼外牵引至施工位置。为方便上一节的笼体拆除,最下一节的笼体安装应比原笼体低50cm,由此中间所有的笼体安装标高比原标高低50cm,以便于上一节笼体的拆除。笼体牵引至标高后,位于上一节的人员应立即将笼体通过倒链与上一节相连接,并通过倒链进行微调,确保施工节与下一次的螺栓孔对齐后即进行笼体与结构体的连接、笼体与下一节笼体的连接。连接后施工节与上一节笼体间隔50cm。如此循环拆除、安装直至完成整个爬梯的安装。4.6平台的拆与安装平台的拆除与安装应同步进行,即拆除一个三角架安装一个新的三角架。

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鞋必须是防滑绝缘胶鞋,烟囱防腐置换操作必须系好安全带,安全带应系挂于上一节已安装固定好的笼体上,以保挂点的有效,每到一个工作点必须首先系好安全带,才能进行作业。卷扬机的操体人员应通过信号联络装置听从高空置换人员的指挥,平稳操作操作。由于钢丝绳通过笼体内卷扬,爬梯笼内人员应注意钢丝绳的通行,以免被钢丝绳,造成。所有材料必须采用吊绳运输,严禁抛掷。构件吊装前应进行刹车的重载试验,以保证刹车在构件运输过程中的有效。整个置换施工在烟囱停产期间进行,置换前对锈蚀的情况进行调查,置换过程中采取双保险措施,防止局部严重锈蚀出现。6结语外部环境的影响及使用年限的限制,构筑物(如烟囱、冷却塔)的爬梯使用过程中,将产生不同程度的锈蚀。为了保证正常的生产运转,应引起使用单位的重视,根据锈蚀的情况应立即更换。高空置换的方案经济适用,值得借鉴。